الملك بورس

كان الملك بورس (بالإنجليزية: Porus)‏،(من بورو، وهي المصطلح المحول إلى اللاتينية من المصطلح اليوناني Πῶρος - بوروس، وأخيرًا من (بالسنسكريتية: पुरुषोत्तम)‏ بوروشوتاما (Purushottama)) ملك بورافا، وهي ولاية قديمة تقع حديثًا ضمن مقاطعة بنجاب الواقعة بين نهر جيلوم ونهر شيناب (باليونانية هيداسبيس (Hydaspes) وآكيسينز (Acesines)) وفي وقتنا الحالي بنجاب وباكستان ولاحقًا ملك السلطنات الممتدة إلى بيز (باليونانية، هايفاسيس (Hyphasis)) [3] حارب بورس الإسكندر الأكبر في معركة هيداسبس عام 326 قبل الميلاد وتعرف هذه الموقعة بأنها واحدة من المعارك الحاسمة في التاريخ.[بحاجة لمصدر] فقد خسر بورس في هذه المعركة ولكن الإسكندر انبهر ببنيته وعزمه على القتال حتى الموت على الرغم من إصابته البالغة التي طالت وجهه والتي كانت تنذر بحتمية الهزيمة فجعله يحكم أرضه والأراضي التابعة له فيما بعد وعلى هذا أصبح بورس حليفًا له.[بحاجة لمصدر] ومن الشائع أن تلك البسالة التي أظهرها بورس وقواته في تلك المعركة أسهمت في دوافع رفض جيوش الإسكندر التوغل في معقل الأراضي الهندية معتقدين بأن بورس لم يكن بنهاية الأمر سوى ملك صغير لمملكة صغيرة مقارنة بما ينتظرهم لاحقًا.[بحاجة لمصدر]

King of Paurava and dominions extending to en:Hyphasis. Located in Punjab
King Porus
Surrender of Porus to the King Alexander

King of Paurava and dominions extending to en:Hyphasis. Located in Punjab
فترة الحكم
340–317 BC
معلومات شخصية
الميلاد القرن 4 ق.م 
unknown
الوفاة 317 BC
بنجاب (منطقة)
الديانة هندوسية
عائلة Paurava Puru Dynasty[1][2] en:Yaduvanshi
الحياة العملية
المهنة سياسي  

معرض صور

المراجع

  1. The cause of the Ten-Kings battle was that the Ten tried to divert the river Parushni. This is a stretch of the modern Ravi which, however, changed its course several times. Diversion of the waters of the Indus system is still a cause for angry recriminations between India and Pakistan. The 'greasy-voiced' Purus, though enemies of en:Sudas, were not only en:Aryans but closely related to the Bharatas. Later tradition even makes the Bharatas a branch of the Purus. The same clan priests in the Rigveda impartially call down curses and blessings upon the Purus in diverse hymns, which shows that the differences between them and the Bharatas were not permanent. The quarrel was of another sort than that between Aryan and non-Aryan. The Purus remained in the Harappa region and expanded their rule over the Panjab in later times. It was they who put up the strongest fight against Alexander in 327 B.C. The modern Panjabi surname Puri may possibly originate with the Puru tribe., Ancient India: A History of its Culture and Civilisation, By Kosambi, Damodar Dharmanand, pp 81-83
  2. King Poros belonged to the tribe of the Pauravas, descended from the Puru tribe mentioned so often in the Rigveda. A History of India, By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermung, pp 57
  3. Arrian Anabasis of Alexander, V.29.2
  4. Political and Social Movement in Ancient Punjab, By Buddha Prakash, pp 77
  5. It was they who put up the strongest fight against Alexander in 327 B.C. The modern Punjabi surname Puri may possibly originate with the Puru tribe, The founders of Indus valley civilization and their later history, By Naval Viyogi, pp 155
  6. Proceedings, pp 72, Indian History Congress, Published 1957
  7. According to Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo, en:Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshipped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the en:Yadu dynasty to which كريشنا belonged; en:Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. كوينتوس كورتيوس روفوس also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of en:Herakles in their vanguard.Krishna: a sourcebook, pp 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007
  8. Chandragupta Maurya: a gem of Indian history, pp 76, Purushottam Lal Bhargava, Edition: 2, illustrated, Published by D.K. Printworld, 1996
  9. A Comprehensive History of India: The Mauryas & Satavahanas, pp 383, edited by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Bharatiya Itihas Parishad, Published by Orient Longmans, 1992, Original from the University of California
  10. Actually , the legend reports a westward march of the Yadus (MBh. 1.13.49, 65) from Mathura, while the route from Mathura to Dvaraka southward through a desert. This part of the Krsna legend could be brought to earth by digging at Dvaraka, but also digging at Darwaz in Afghanistan, whose name means the same thing and which is the more probable destination of refugees from Mathura...Introduction to the study of indian history, pp 125, D D Kosambi, Publisher: [S.l.] : Popular Prakashan, 1999
  11. "It seems, therefore, most reasonable to conclude that the name is simply the seat of Purrus or Porus, the name of a King or family of kings...There are no authentic records of tribes seated about Peshawar before the time of Mahmud, beyond established fact of their being of Indian origin; it not an improbable conjecture that they descended from the race of Yadu who were either expelled or voluntarily emigrated from Gujrat, 1100 years before Christ, and who afterwards found Kandhar and the hills of Cabul (Kabul) from whom, indeed, some would derive the en:Jaduns now residing in the hills of north of يوسفزي..." Gazetteer of the Dera Ghazi Khan District, pp52, Publisher: Lahore, "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1898.
  12. Apparently Siva is meant, though his many wives and sons are unknown to Hindu mythology. ANCIENT INDIA as described by MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN, By Dr. Schwanbeck and J.W. McCrindle (1877), pp 57
  13. "Hasti, the twenty-sixth in descent from Pooru, son of Yayati, founded Hastinapoor, on the Ganges, long the capital of Upper India; and although not mentioned by name in any of the Greek writers, was probably the regal abode of the Porus who opposed Alexander. From Hasti issued several tribes, of which the Curu and Pandus were the most distinguished; while from Yadu, elder brother of Pooru, issued the Hericula, or " race of Heri," who erected the cities of Surpaora, Mathura, and Baldevd, on the Jumna." The Asiatic journal and monthly miscellany, pp 305, London, Wm. H. Allen & Co.

    الكتابات

    • آريانوس, The Campaigns of Alexander, book 5.
    • History of Porus, Patiala, Dr. Buddha Parkash.
    • Lendring, Jona. Alexander de Grote - De ondergang van het Perzische rijk (Alexander the Great. The demise of the Persian empire), Amsterdam: Athenaeum - Polak & Van Gennep, 2004. ISBN 90-253-3144-0
    • Holt, Frank L. Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions, California: University of California Press, 2003, 217pgs. ISBN 0-520-24483-4
    • History of India: (from the earliest times to the fall of the Mughal Empire), Dr. Ishwari Prashad

    وصلات خارجية

    • Porus at Livius, by Jona Lendering
    •  هيو تشيشولم, المحرر (1911). "King Porus" . موسوعة بريتانيكا (الطبعة الحادية عشر). مطبعة جامعة كامبريدج. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
    • بوابة التاريخ
    • بوابة حضارات قديمة
    • بوابة أعلام
    • بوابة باكستان
    • بوابة الهند
    • بوابة السياسة
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